Earlier reports of primary nodal gastrinomas and of diffuse gastrin overproduction in the stomach appear to be due instead to very small (<1 mm) duodenal neoplasms
Functioning G cell neoplasms (gastrinomas) may be solitary or multiple and may be located throughout the duodenum or into proximal jejunum
Local lymph nodes frequently involved (50-80%)
May occur even if primary neoplasm is <1 mm
Liver involved at presentation in about 5%
Most cases of ZE syndrome due to sporadic gastrinomas
Approximately 20% associated with MEN1
Duodenal G cell neoplasms associated with MEN1 are more often multiple
Same behavior as sporadic neoplasms if matched for function and stage
Sporadic G cell neoplasms more often solitary and <1 cm
10 year survival >90%
for duodenal gastrinomas without liver metastases
(Weber 1995, Stabile 1985)
10 year survival if liver metastases found at presentation 30%
Local lymph node involvement not predictive of poor behavior
10 year survival if regional nodes involved also >90%
Same behavior even if incompletely resected
Note that WHO 2008 incorrectly gives 10 year survival of 59% for duodenal gastrinomas without liver metastases, referencing Weber 1995 who actually reported 94% survival
Robert V Rouse MD
Department of Pathology
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford CA 94305-5342
Original posting/updates : 7/27/10, 11/22/11, 12/28/11
WHO recommends the following grading scheme, but a number of other factors are predictive of behavior, see Criteria
Proposed grading scale based on proliferation
Mitotic count per 10 hpf
% of cells Ki67+
Mitotic counts based on 50 hpf
Ki67 % based on 500-2000 cells
If discrepant, use higher grade
Scale proposed by European Neuroendocrine Society (ENETS)
Carcinoids / neuroendocrine tumors may be G1 or G2
G3 is definitional for high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma
Progression from G1/2 to G3 is quite rare
G3 appears to be a separate process
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Determination of common sites of origin for metastatic well differentiated endocrine neoplasms
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